un·der /ˈəndɚ/ 副詞
1. Below or lower, in place or position, with the idea of being covered; lower than; beneath; -- opposed to over; as, he stood under a tree; the carriage is under cover; a cellar extends under the whole house.
Fruit put in bottles, and the bottles let down into wells under water, will keep long. --Bacon.
Be gathered now, ye waters under heaven,
Into one place. --Milton.
2. Hence, in many figurative uses which may be classified as follows; --
(a) Denoting relation to some thing or person that is superior, weighs upon, oppresses, bows down, governs, directs, influences powerfully, or the like, in a relation of subjection, subordination, obligation, liability, or the like; as, to travel under a heavy load; to live under extreme oppression; to have fortitude under the evils of life; to have patience under pain, or under misfortunes; to behave like a Christian under reproaches and injuries; under the pains and penalties of the law; the condition under which one enters upon an office; under the necessity of obeying the laws; under vows of chastity.
Both Jews and Gentiles . . . are all under sin. --Rom. iii. 9.
That led the embattled seraphim to war
Under thy conduct. --Milton.
Who have their provand
Only for bearing burdens, and sore blows
For sinking under them. --Shak.
(b) Denoting relation to something that exceeds in rank or degree, in number, size, weight, age, or the like; in a relation of the less to the greater, of inferiority, or of falling short.
Three sons he dying left under age. --Spenser.
Medicines take effect sometimes under, and sometimes above, the natural proportion of their virtue. --Hooker.
There are several hundred parishes in England under twenty pounds a year. --Swift.
It was too great an honor for any man under a duke. --Addison.
Note: ☞ Hence, it sometimes means at, with, or for, less than; as, he would not sell the horse under sixty dollars.
Several young men could never leave the pulpit under half a dozen conceits. --Swift.
(c) Denoting relation to something that comprehends or includes, that represents or designates, that furnishes a cover, pretext, pretense, or the like; as, he betrayed him under the guise of friendship; Morpheus is represented under the figure of a boy asleep.
A crew who, under names of old renown . . . abused
Fanatic Egypt. --Milton.
Mr. Duke may be mentioned under the double capacity of a poet and a divine. --Felton.
Under this head may come in the several contests and wars betwixt popes and the secular princes. --C. Leslie.
(d) Less specifically, denoting the relation of being subject, of undergoing regard, treatment, or the like; as, a bill under discussion.
Abject and lost, lay these, covering the flood,
Under amazement of their hideous change. --Milton.
Under arms. Mil. (a) Drawn up fully armed and equipped. (b) Enrolled for military service; as, the state has a million men under arms.
Under canvas. (a) Naut. Moved or propelled by sails; -- said of any vessel with her sail set, but especially of a steamer using her sails only, as distinguished from one under steam. Under steam and canvas signifies that a vessel is using both means of propulsion. (b) Mil. Provided with, or sheltered in, tents.
Under fire, exposed to an enemy's fire; taking part in a battle or general engagement.
Under foot. See under Foot, n.
Under ground, below the surface of the ground.
Under one's signature, with one's signature or name subscribed; attested or confirmed by one's signature. Cf. the second Note under Over, prep.
Under sail. Naut. (a) With anchor up, and under the influence of sails; moved by sails; in motion. (b) With sails set, though the anchor is down. (c) Same as Under canvas (a), above. --Totten.
Under sentence, having had one's sentence pronounced.
Under the breath, Under one's breath, with low voice; very softly.
Under the lee Naut., to the leeward; as, under the lee of the land.
Under the gun. Under psychological pressure, such as the need to meet a pressing deadline; feeling pressured
Under water, below the surface of the water.
Under way, or Under weigh Naut., in a condition to make progress; having started.
Un·der adv. In a lower, subject, or subordinate condition; in subjection; -- used chiefly in a few idiomatic phrases; as, to bring under, to reduce to subjection; to subdue; to keep under, to keep in subjection; to control; to go under, to be unsuccessful; to fail; to go bankrupt.
I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection. --1 Cor. ix. 27.
The minstrel fell, but the foeman's chain
Could not bring his proud soul under. --Moore.
Note: ☞ Under is often used in composition with a verb to indicate lowness or inferiority in position or degree, in the act named by the verb; as, to underline; to undermine; to underprop.
Un·der, a. Lower in position, intensity, rank, or degree; subject; subordinate; -- generally in composition with a noun, and written with or without the hyphen; as, an undercurrent; undertone; underdose; under-garment; underofficer; undersheriff.
Under covert Zool., one of the feathers situated beneath the bases of the quills in the wings and tail of a bird. See Illust. under Bird.
adj 1: located below or beneath something else; "nether garments";
"the under parts of a machine" [syn: nether]
2: lower in rank, power, or authority; "an under secretary"
adv 1: down to defeat, death, or ruin; "their competitors went
2: through a range downward; "children six and under will be
3: into unconsciousness; "this will put the patient under"
4: in or into a state of subordination or subjugation; "we must
keep our disappointment under"
5: below some quantity or limit; "fifty dollars or under"
6: below the horizon; "the sun went under"
7: down below; "get under quickly!"
8: further down; "see under for further discussion" [syn: below]